Rybinsk is the second largest city in the Yaroslavl region of Russia, located 82 km from Yaroslavl. The first mention of the settlement of Ust-Sheksna within the city of Rybinsk dates back to the XI century. In 1777, by her decree, Catherine II assigned Rybinsk city status.
The administrative center of the Rybinsk district, which is not included, having the status of a city of regional importance and forming the city district of Rybinsk with the only settlement in its composition. It is located at the confluence of the Volga, Sheksna and Cheryomukha rivers.
Before the October Revolution, it was the largest grain trading center in Russia, the transshipment center of the Mariinsky Water System, nicknamed “the capital of barge-haulers”.
In Soviet times, the engine-building plant, now known as PJSC “ODK-Saturn”, became the basis of the city’s economy. After construction in the 1930s of the Rybinsk Hydroelectric Power Plant to the north-west of the city, the Rybinsk reservoir emerged – the world’s largest artificial reservoir for its time.
The population of January 1, 2018, is 188,678 thousand. (registered population).
The city is located 270 km north of Moscow and 80 km north-west of Yaroslavl. In addition to the three main rivers, a number of small rivers and streams flow in the city. The historical center of the city is bounded by the Volga rivers, its right tributary the Cheryomukha, the left tributary of the Chermukha Korovka and the left tributary of the Korovka Dresvyanka or the Pakhomovsky stream. The area on the right bank of the Cheryomukha in the city is called “Beyond the Cheryomukha”, and the outskirts on the right bank of the Pakhomovsky stream – “Beyond the Pakhomovsky bridge”. A small river Utkash, which flows into the Volga downstream of the Cherry-tree, separates the eastern part of the city – Kopaevo. Another right tributary, the Fominsky Brook, flows along the northwestern outskirts and separates the Perebory micro district from the city. In the left-bank part of the city, the Krutets creek and the Selyanka river, separating from the Volga part of the city its eastern edge – Slip. The influx of the Sheksna Brook Inopash limits the Volga part from the north.
The city is located at the northernmost point of the Volga River, to Rybinsk it flows mainly to the northeast, and from Rybinsk it turns to the southeast. Rybinsk lies on both its banks, but the main part is on the right bank, oriented along with it and has a length of twenty-one kilometers with a width of no more than six kilometers.
The city is located in a flat, often marshy area. The conditional boundary of the zone of mixed forests and taiga passes through it.
The dam of the Rybinsk hydroelectric station, forming the Rybinsk reservoir, is located within the city. The peculiarity of this dam is that it overlaps the place where the Sheksna River flows into the Volga River; having merged, the rivers formed a wide, but shallow-water reservoir. Between the old channel of Sheksna, the reservoir and the Volga formed a fairly long island.
Historically, Rybinsk emerged on the right bank of the Volga River at the confluence of the Cheremukha River into it. A sharp cape between them is called an arrow. The mouth of the Sheksna River – the left tributary of the Volga, like other left-bank districts, became part of the city only in the 20th century, due to the rapid growth in the period of industrialization.
A stone age parking lot has been found in the historic center of the city. The oldest settlement at the confluence of the Sheksna in the Volga was called Ust-Sheksna. The first chronicle mention is associated with the Rostov uprising of 1071: Jan Vyshatich “Stash at Ust-Sheksna” for trial and reprisals against the insurgent wise men. The excavations revealed traces of an extensive trade and craft settlement of the beginning of the XI century (an area of over 30 hectares) with products of Byzantine and Scandinavian origin, an abundance of Arab dirhems. Obviously, on the site of the modern city was a large point of the Volga trade route. Found also an act seal of Igor Yaroslavich.
The next time the settlement is mentioned in 1504 already as Fish Village in the spiritual literacy of Ivan III. At this time and later the settlement belonged directly to the Moscow kings and provided the royal court with fish. There are documents on the natural fish tax on residents. Sloboda was wooden, and from this era in the city monuments have not survived. In the 17th century, the first stone churches were built, including the city Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior.
Economic reforms and the crisis of the 1990s, and a decrease in the financing of the defense industry had a negative effect on the social and economic development of Rybinsk. Magma Electrotechnical Plant, Prisma Optical-Mechanical Plant, Rybinsk Woodworking Machines Plant, Mayak Match Factory, Rybinsk Confectionary Factory, Building Trust No. 16 with a house-building factory ceased to exist. One of the largest in the city of Volzhsky Machine-Building Plant, on the site of which JSC “UEC – Gas Turbines” and JSC “Russian Mechanics” are now operating, has disappeared. Many enterprises have undergone reductions, mainly in the production of civilian products. The construction of many residential and social facilities was frozen. All this caused an outflow of population and, together with the demographic decline of the 1990s, led to a sharp decline in the population of the city: in 25 years the population of the city decreased by almost 60 thousand people (24%).
According to the results of the voting on September 4, 2005, the city has been granted the status of a city district since 2006. In 2010, Rybinsk was deprived of the status of a historic city.
After 1991, Rybinskelectrokabel CJSC (together with Prysmian), a software development company Krista, appeared in Rybinsk. In 2014, the plant launched the Russian Gas Turbines LLC (together with General Electric). Since 2010, there has been a revival of housing. Mostly, brick-free houses of 3-5 floors are built with apartment gas heating.
In 2007, after the restoration, the Transfiguration Cathedral was reopened – the cathedral church of the Rybinsk diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Since 2010, work has been carried out on the improvement of urban areas (the Nikolskaya Chapel has been restored, the railway station and Vokzalnaya Square have been reconstructed, the Feigin parks have been landscaped, the park on Dmitrov St., Volzhsky Park, the Red Square has been reconstructed, large-scale bank protection of the Volga has been carried out).
In 2016, the city took part in the regional program “We will equip the region for the anniversary” (improvement of courtyards, park areas, municipal institutions, repair of roads). In early 2017, Rybinsk also joined in the implementation of the project of the acting governor of the region Dmitry Mironov “We decide together!”, Within the framework of which the following activities are planned: repair of yard territories and passages to apartment buildings; improvement of the pedestrian zone with the arrangement of recreation areas in the area of ”Polet”; partial repair of recreation center “Vympel”; repairs in educational and cultural institutions, repair of a bridge pole in the Volzhsky microdistrict.
Currently, the historical center with merchant houses, grain exchanges, squares, and architectural monuments is being reconstructed. Rybinsk offers several sanatoriums and SPA-hotels for rehabilitation.
River operators offer cruises with a visit to the city. Recreation facilities on the Rybinsk reservoir offer options for summer and winter fishing. Active and event tourism is represented by a variety of activities, many of which have become the hallmark of the city.
In the winter – “The Invasion of Santa Clauses”. As part of the festival, there is a carnival parade of thousands of Santa Clauses, a gastronomic festival, interactive events, a festive program, and fireworks.
“Invasion of Santa Clauses – 2017” was one of the most popular in the nine years of the event. In the carnival parade, more than 2,000 people marched through the main streets of the city, more than 10,000 residents and guests watched a festive program and attended a gastronomic festival.
In the spring – World Cup in cross-country skiing in Dyomin
Marathon Dyomin WL was first held in 2007. The Dyomin Marathon has been part of the elite international WORLDLOPPET series since 2012. In the season of 2017 more than 3 thousand people from around the world took part in it.
In the summer – the All-Russian Patriotic Festival of Culture and Art “Ushakov”
At the festival, a solemn liturgy is held in the Church of the Epiphany-on-Ostrovu, competitions of youth teams “Ushakov Bereg”, thematic areas (exhibition, games, costumed reconstructions, shopping, with master classes, theater). The All-Russian Patriotic Festival of Culture and Art named after the holy righteous warrior Theodore Ushakov is held annually at two venues: the village of Kopylyovo, where the future admiral was baptized, and in Rybinsk itself. In 2018, the festival of naval cuisine was first held.
Reconstruction-festival “Barge haulers along the Volga”
The festival provides an opportunity to visualize the era of Burlache by involving the guests of the holiday in the reconstruction of the scenes of the life of barge haulers: acquaintance with folklore, customs, and rituals, cuisine, specific language.
In 201, 13 teams, more than a hundred people – representatives of Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Rybinsk, as well as China and Africa, competed in dragging a barge, earned burdensome money and tasted the burdensome fish soup.